Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a non-invasive therapeutic approach that uses low-level light therapy to stimulate or inhibit cellular activity, leading to beneficial clinical outcomes. PBM has been shown to have various clinical applications, including pain relief, wound healing, and tissue regeneration, among others.
The mechanism of action of photobiomodulation involves the absorption of light by chromophores within cells, particularly within the mitochondria. This absorption leads to an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of nitric oxide (NO). These events result in the activation of various signaling pathways, which ultimately lead to changes in cellular function and gene expression.